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Infos: 2022 was the 5th or 6th warmest year on record: US government agencies

Cleared   –   Copyright © africanews cleared By Rédaction Africanews and AP Last updated: 11 hours ago USA Earth's fever persisted last year. It didn't spike to a record high, but 2022 still made it to the top five or six warmest on record, government agencies reported Thursday. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) found

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Infos: 2022 was the 5th or 6th warmest year on record: US government agencies
Cleared   –  

Copyright © africanews

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Earth's fever persisted last year. It didn't spike to a record high, but 2022 still made it to the top five or six warmest on record, government agencies reported Thursday.

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) found that 2022's global average temperature was 14.76 degrees Celsius (58.55 degrees Fahrenheit), ranking sixth hottest on record.

NOAA doesn't include the polar regions because of data concerns, but soon will.

If the Arctic – which is warming three to four times faster than the rest of the world – and Antarctic are factored in, NOAA said it would be fifth warmest.

NASA, which has long factored the Arctic in its global calculations, said 2022 is essentially tied for fifth warmest with 2015.

Four other scientific agencies or science groups around the world put the year as either fifth or sixth hottest.

“2022 is another top ten year,” says Gavin Schmidt, director of Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA.

“It ranks roughly joint fifth with 2015. The warmer years were 2016, 2020, which were joint first and then 2019 and 2017 were quite warm. But it's another top ten year cementing that long term trend that we've been seeing in temperatures certainly since the 1970s and since the late 19th century. It's the eighth year in a row that's more than one degree Celsius above the late 19th century. And so that's that's getting us very close to that 1.5 (degree Celsius) kind of guideline that came out of the Paris Accords.”

And that's in spite of a strong La Nina in 2022, a cooling of the equatorial Pacific that slightly reduces global average temperatures.

It's the opposite of an El Nino, a warming of the Pacific, usually peaking in December.

Berkeley Earth, a nonprofit group of independent scientists, said it was the fifth warmest on record and noted that for 28 countries it was the hottest year on record, including China, the United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany and New Zealand.

“So we're warming at about 0.2 degree Celsius per decade, a little bit more than that. And then the impact of El Nino and La Nina are about a third of that. So you just need to go a third of the decade and the long term trend is going to cancel out the impact of the La Nina. And so we have now a big La Nina year (that) is almost as warm as the 2016 El Nino year, and that was a massive El Nino,” says Schmidt.

Last year was slightly toastier than 2021, but overall the science teams say the big issue is that the last eight years, from 2015 on, have been a step above the higher temperatures the globe had been going through.

All eight years are more than 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than pre-industrial times, NOAA and NASA say.

Last year was 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than the mid-19th century, NASA says.

Schmidt's role at NASA involves the supervision of temperature data collection to compute annual averages.

“We take weather station records from countries all around the world. We take ocean ship records from all around the world. Ocean buoys, the Argo float network that now tracks what's going on in the ocean. We put these all together. We try and correct for non climatic things like moves of stations from one place to another, changes of instrumentation, changes in methodology. We try to include those things. We try and take into account the uncertainty from the extrapolation and the interpolation between stations and when you put all that together, that's when you get these records that go back at least to the late 19th century,” he says.

And this data has a direct correlation with extreme weather events happening all year round.

“We're talking mainly about the global mean, but nobody lives in the global mean, so all of the things that are happening the heat waves in Europe, the fires in Europe, the warmest year in the UK, the flooding in Pakistan and elsewhere, the heat waves again in the Pacific Northwest, the fires, all of these things are associated with local temperatures,” says Schmidt.

The La Nina is in its third consecutive year.

Schmidt calculated that last year, the La Nina cooled the overall temperature by about 0.06 degrees Celsius (0.01 Fahrenheit) and that last year was the hottest La Nina year on record.

“So we're anticipating that 2023 will be warmer than 2022, both because the La Nina intensity will be less, but also because you've got another year of the long term trends,” says Shmidt.

Schmidt says there are hints of an acceleration of warming but the data isn't quite solid enough to be sure. But the overall trend of warming is rock solid.

Schmidt's predecessor, climate scientist James Hansen, testified about worsening warming in 1988.

That year would go on to be the record warmest at the time.

Now, 1988 is the 28th hottest year on record.

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              Infos: Pope Francis in DRC on a “mission of peace”

              Pope Francis greets well-wishers after arriving in Kinshasa, Congo, Tuesday Jan. 31, 2023   –   Copyright © africanews Jerome Delay/Copyright 2023 The AP. All rights reserved By Rédaction Africanews and Serge Koffi Last updated: 7 hours ago Pope Francis The plane carrying the Holy Father arrived at Kinshasa International Airport in the middle of Tuesday afternoon.

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              Infos: Pope Francis in DRC on a “mission of peace”
              Pope Francis greets well-wishers after arriving in Kinshasa, Congo, Tuesday Jan. 31, 2023   –  

              Copyright © africanews

              Jerome Delay/Copyright 2023 The AP. All rights reserved

              Pope Francis

              The plane carrying the Holy Father arrived at Kinshasa International Airport in the middle of Tuesday afternoon.

              A dozen dignitaries including Congolese Prime Minister Sama Lukonde, alongside civil and religious authorities met him at the foot of the plane.

              Pope Francis was then escorted in his Popemobile to the Palace of the Nation where he met the Congolese President Felix Tshisekedi.

              The pontiff expressed his regret that the country, and more widely the African continent, still suffers from various forms of exploitation.

              “This country and this continent deserve to be respected and listened to, they deserve to find space and receive attention. Hands off the Democratic Republic of the Congo! Hands off Africa! Stop choking Africa: Africa is not a mine to be stripped or a terrain to be plundered. May Africa be the protagonist of its own destiny!”, said Pope Francis

              Alongside the Pope, the Congolese president spoke of the challenges facing the  Continent, notably security and the preservation of the environment.

              “The removal of security threats in our country will certainly contribute to the effectiveness of the fight against climate change and the protection of the environment. Your pastoral visit will surely contribute to strengthen this determination and our people are ready to welcome your message of peace, hope, comfort, strengthening and brotherhood”, said Felix Antoine Tshisekedi, President of the DRC

              Africanews reporter Serge Koffi added:

              “According to the organisers, Pope Francis will not be visiting the east of the country where the security crisis has lasted for more than two decades.

              It is therefore here in Kinshasa, far from the shooting and fighting that the pontiff will launch his message of peace and reconciliation with the aim of easing tensions in this part of the DRC“.

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                          Infos: South Sudan prepares to welcome Pope Francis

                          South Sudan prepares Papal visit   –   Copyright © africanews Africanews By Africanews Last updated: 7 hours ago South Sudan Pope Francis landed in the DRC's capital, Kinshasa, on Tuesday afternoon for the first Papal visit to the DRC since 1985. The visit to the Continent includes a trip on Friday to Juba, the capital of

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                          Infos: South Sudan prepares to welcome Pope Francis
                          South Sudan prepares Papal visit   –  

                          Copyright © africanews

                          Africanews

                          South Sudan

                          Pope Francis landed in the DRC's capital, Kinshasa, on Tuesday afternoon for the first Papal visit to the DRC since 1985.

                          The visit to the Continent includes a trip on Friday to Juba, the capital of South Sudan and one of the poorest countries in the world.

                          “We hope this visit is a great opportunity for the people of South Sudan to reconcile, to reunite, and to rebuild their future as one people united”, said Andreas Mabior, Head of the choir.

                          Sister Sarah Gune Justin, a Catholic nun, added “(South Sudan, Ed.) We became helpless because of war, but with faith and trust in God we know that with the coming of the Holy Father to our country, we will experience the peace of Christ, and South Sudan is going to change, it’s not going to remain as before”.

                          The six-day trip to the DRC and South Sudan had been planned for July 2022, but postponed due to the pontiff's knee pain that has forced him to use a wheelchair in recent months.

                          “Hopefully his coming as already indicated in his motto of coming, this is his wish for the people of South Sudan, “to be united, to be one”. This is without any hesitation that is moving people of South Sudan to be one”, concluded Matthew Remijio, Catholic Bishop of South Sudan's Wau Diocese.

                          After gaining independence in 2011, South Sudan suffered a brutal five-year civil war, while continued conflict between rival ethnic groups exacts a terrible toll on civilians.

                          The Pope will be joined in Juba by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, and the leader of the Church of Scotland, on what he has called “an ecumenical pilgrimage of peace“.

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                                    Infos: Sacred Ivorian drum held in France about to be returned home

                                    The Djidji Ayokwe drum is emblematic of Ivorian culture and identity   –   Copyright © africanews africanews By Africanews Last updated: 3 hours ago France An Ivorian drum seized by France during colonization is about to be returned to the Ivory Coast. The sacred Djidji Ayokwe drum was used to communicate warning messages up to thirty

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                                    Infos: Sacred Ivorian drum held in France about to be returned home
                                    The Djidji Ayokwe drum is emblematic of Ivorian culture and identity   –  

                                    Copyright © africanews

                                    africanews

                                    France

                                    An Ivorian drum seized by France during colonization is about to be returned to the Ivory Coast.

                                    The sacred Djidji Ayokwe drum was used to communicate warning messages up to thirty kilometres around villages.

                                    In 1916 the drum was confiscated by the French colonial administration and transferred to France in 1930.

                                    The “talking drum”, as it was nicknamed,has been restored in a workshop near Paris under the supervision of the Quay Branly Museum.

                                    “You can see that it has been quite badly affected by wood-eating insects which have dug galleries, certainly repeatedly, and that this has structurally weakened the drum”, said Nathalie Richard, head of the conservation-restoration department at the Quai Branly Museum.

                                    “We consolidated the material, the wood itself, by impregnating it with a resin carried by a solvent. So the resin makes it possible to regain a slightly solid structure and to avoid small breakages on the edges, on the edges of the galleries, on the edges of the gaps, and so that vibrations and handling do not damage the drum any more”, concluded the head of conservation. 

                                    The drum is three metres long and weighs 430 kg. This wooden instrument is seen as carrying mystical properties and was used to warn of dangers, mobilise for war or summon villages to ceremonies or festivals.

                                    It is the first of a list of 148 works that Ivory Coast officially requested the restitution to France in late 2018.

                                    “The drum made it possible to transmit messages over long distances – up to 30 kilometres in all directions – to villages neighbouring the village of Adjamé where it was located and which were therefore interpreted by those who heard them through sound, since the Ebrié language is a tonal language”, said Hélène Joubert, head of the heritage unit of the Africa collections at the Quai Branly Museum.

                                    This traditional object, long claimed by Abidjan, is a central piece of the musical art of the Ebriés, an ethnic group in Ivory Coast.

                                    “This loss was extremely important psychologically, felt as a loss of identity and freedom. And to recover the drum is to recover one's identity and freedom”,  concluded the head of African collections. 

                                    The arrival of the Djidji Ayokwe at the Museum of Civilisation in Abidjan can only be confirmed once the French Parliament has voted on a law allowing its official return, similar to the restitution of historical pieces to Benin approved by the French parliament in December 2020.

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